Source: World Wide Web
These days, damask steel is hard and tough, according to the Bear, mainly because it is made of different layers of alloy.In ancient times, this was the preferred material, especially blade material.Now, a team at the Max Planck Institute in Dusseldorf and the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology in Aachen have developed a process that allows such steel to be produced layer by layer in a 3D printer, where the hardness of each individual layer can be adjusted.
According to the introduction, the Damascus steel manufacturing process originally refers to steel made from Uzi steel, imported from India more than 2000 years ago, and manufactured or traded in Damascus, with curved, wavy, like flowing light and dark stripes.Due to the date of Uzi steel, the real Damask steel has long been a lost art, so many scientists and craftsmen dedicated to reverse engineering have high expectations.
But the rationale behind the steel has been absorbed by later generations.If you visit a modern exhibition during the Renaissance, you will find many unexpected replicas in the swordsman’s booth.
The Damascus blades are made by strapping strips of iron and roasting them until hot, then twisting them together.Blacksmiths beat and reheat them to create intricate patterns.In this process, the properties can be regulated by controlling the carbon content.For example, soft and tough steel is selected for the core of the sword, and then it is welded with the blade made of hardened and sharpened by special processing.
Notably, researchers in Dusseldorf and Aachen are trying to recreate the manufacturing process of ancient Damascus steel using 3D printing and laser technology.What’s more, instead of using two different materials to form a new alloy, the new technology USES only powder alloys of iron, nickel and titanium, which are laser melted and introduced layer by layer to form the desired shape, and then removed to produce the final product.
What’s more, while still in the realm of 3D-metal printing, the new technology differs in the use of lasers and their ability to alter the crystal structure of the metal to form alternating layers of hard and stretchy steel.
Philipp Kurnsteiner, a postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute, said: “We have successfully modified the microstructure of each layer in particular during the 3D printing process so that the final component has the desired properties without the subsequent hard treatment of the steel.Under certain conditions, it forms small nickel-titanium microstructures, and these so-called sediments harden the material.When subjected to mechanical stresses, they prevent dislocation in the lattice, which is characteristic of plastic deformation.After each layer is added, the metal can be cooled below 195°C (383°F), leaving a soft layer and a combination of strength and ductility.”