3. Challenges and Prospects
At present, the limitations of 3D printing in neurosurgery are mainly reflected in the following aspects:
(1) High printing time and cost, it often takes hours to days to complete a finished model;Therefore, 3D printing is currently difficult to apply to emergency cases.It is believed that with the progress of industry, the printing speed can be further improved and the printing cost can be reduced, so as to further increase the application of 3D printing.
Due to the limited accuracy of 3D printing, it is difficult to print some small perforating arteries and scattered arteriovenous malformations. However, with the development of high-precision modeling software and printer, this problem should be well solved.
(3) can be applied to print the material and the fidelity of the material is still limited.Take printed cranial brain tumors as an example. The texture of different tumors is different. Even for the same tumor, its soft and hard tumor, texture, necrosis, calcification and blood supply are also different in different individuals.However, with the establishment and improvement of the database of physical properties of human tissues and organs, it is not far to realize the simulation printing of various textures.
(4) Multi-material composite printing technology is not yet mature, 3D printing model can not show the thrombosis, calcification, blood bubble aneurysms, etc., aneurysm rupture hemorrhage in aneurysm clipping surgery is difficult to achieve on the model.
Although the research on bio-printing has made some progress, there are still great technical challenges in aspects such as vascularization and biocompatibility, as well as obstacles in economic practicality and ethics, and its clinical application is greatly limited at present.However, with the increase of clinical demand and technological progress, the transformation of bio-printing into clinical application is just around the corner.
3D printing technology has opened up a new field in neurosurgery and is widely used in anatomy teaching, surgical simulation, technical training, doctor-patient communication, biological materials and other aspects.Nowadays, the increasingly close intersection of medical and medical work and the rapid development of technology and materials will further promote the clinical application of 3D printing technology.In the future, 3D printing technology will not be limited to changing the routine teaching mode of anatomy and surgery. With the deepening of 3D printing research in the field of regeneration, it is expected to play a revolutionary role in brain remodeling, intracranial biological blood vessels, neuron repair and other fields.
Source: zhao yuanli, wang liang, zhao yahui, ye xun. Application and development prospect of 3D printing technology in neurosurgery [J]. Chinese journal of microinvasive neurosurgery,2020,25(03):97-100.